Endemic and rare species

On Stara planina there are 147 endangered species, whether there are few or that their habitats are endangered. 40 plants are under protection as natural rare species on the territory of Serbia. Some of them include:  mountain pine, green alder, grayish oak, pheasant's eye, pasque flower, Kosovo peony, Heldreich's maple, forest lily, heart-flowered Marsh-orchid, german iris and others.

Among orchids, on Stara planina live real natural rare species, such as Coeloglossum viride, Dactylorhiza cordigera, Dactyilorhiza romana, Dactyilorhiza saccifera, Epipactis palustirs and many others.

Significant species of flora of Stara planina are Campanula calycialata – winged bellflower; Swertia perennis  - felwort; Tozzia alpina carpatica – Carpathian tozzia; Senecio pancicci – Pančić’s frog grass; Soldanella hungarica – mountain snowbell; Oxyria digyina – mountain sorrel; Pingicula leptoceras - butterworts; Drosera rotundifolia – common sundew; Alnus viridis – green alder; Eranthis hyemalis – winter aconite; Gentiana lutea – great yellow gentian and Gentiana punctata – spotted gentian. Many of them are protected and are on the Red list or in the Red book of flora of Serbia.

Mushrooms that have, or may have, economic value grow on Stara planina, for instance: Agaricus macrosporus – champignon; Agaricus campestris – meadow mushroom; Amanita caesarea – Caesar’s mushroom; Boletus edulis – penny bunn; Boletus regius – royal bolete; Cantharellus cibarius - chanterelles; Macrolepiota procera – parasol mushroom and others.

Vegetation of Stara planina is very diverse, with approximately 50 phytocentoses, out of which 23 are forests, 29 are lawns, and some are endemic or relict.

The relict semi-dominant forest communities are: Fago-Aceti intermediae - Colurentum (community of beech, Balkan maples and Turkish hazel); Querco - Aceri intermediae - Colurentum (community of oak, Balkan maples and Turkish hazel); Fagetum submontanum mixtum silicicolum (community of mountain beech and other species on silicate); Carpino orientalis - Quarcetum mixtum calciolum (community of oriental hornbeam, oak and other woody species on limestone); Syringetum vulgaris (community of lilics); Salici Alnetum viridis (community of Salix silesiaca Willd. and green alder).

From phytocentoses of meadows and pastures are: Allio - Caricetum leavis (community of onion and orchard grass); Festucetum paniculatae (community of east Alpine violet fescue); Vaccinio (community of blueberries and cranberries); Drosero - Caricetum stellulatae (community of sundew and orchard grass); Cardamino - Rumicetum balcanicae (community of bittercress and Balkan sorrel); Telekietum specisae (community of black oman); Symphyandro - Saxifragetum moschatae (community of bellflowers and salsifies).